VJ connects verbs to the word "and" to create a conjoined modifier phrase.
+---Ss---+ | +--VJ-+--VJ--+ | | | | he ran and.j-v jumpedIn the above example, the VJ links join the verbs "ran" and "jumped" to the central coordinator "and". The "and" acts as a head-word, connecting to the subject as if it were a verb itself: joining with the S link to the subject on the left.
There are many subtypes to the VJ link; these are summarized here, and reviewed in detail below.
The subtypes VJl, VJr, standing for "left" and "right", are used to maintain sequential ordering, which is important for comma-separated lists of verbs; thus, for example:
+----Ss---+-----VJrsi-----+ | +VJls+ +--VJlsi-+--VJrsi--+ | | | | | | he ran.v-d , jumped.v-d and.j-v scored.v-dNotice that when infinitives are used, then the XJ link is used instead. This is probably a design flaw, and the approach taken for XJi links should be harmonized with that for the other XJ link styles.
The subtype VJd is used to conjoin ditransitive objects (where the verb takes for a direct and indirect object):
+----------VJd---------+ +------Osn------+ +------Osn------+ +-Sp*i-+--Os--+ +-Ds-+ +---Os--+ +-Ds+ | | | | | | | | | I.p gave.v-d Bob.m a doll.n and.j-o Mary.b a gun.nThere are many "complex" transitive verbs that can be conjoined in a fashion similar to the above: transitive verbs that take particles, transitive verbs that can connect to phrases headed by to ... or that .... While the VJd subtype handles the most common case, that of ditransitive verbs, the more complex cases are not handled, or are not consistently handled in link-grammar. See also the discussion of this phenomenon in the page introducing conjunctions in link-grammar.
The subtype VJ*s is used to enforce singular subjects:
+-----Ss-----+ | +-VJlsi-+--VJrsi--+ | | | | he ran.v-d and.j-v jumped.v-dThe subtype VJ*p is used to enforce plural subjects:
+------Sp-----+ | +-VJlpi-+--VJrpi--+ | | | | they ran.v-d and.j-v jumped.v-dThe subtype VJ*g is used to conjoin gerunds:
+--------Pg*b-------+ +-Ss-+ +---VJlg---+---VJrg--+ | | | | | he was.v-d running.v and.v-fill jumping.vThe subtype VJ*h is used to conjoin past participles:
+------PP-----+ +-Ss-+ +-VJlh-+--VJrht--+ | | | | | he had.v-d run.v and.j-v jumped.v-d
The VJ**i and VJ**t subtypes control whether a conjunction can take an object. The conjunction should take an object if both verbs are transitive; for example, I saw and greeted Sue, which should group together the verbs: I (saw and greeted) Sue, with the and acting as the head work, connnecting to the subject, and to the object:
+-----Sp*i----+--------Os--------+ | +-VJlpt-+--VJrpt--+ | | | | | | I.p saw.v-d and.j-v greeted.v-d Sue.fThe above may be interpreted as two sentences: I saw Sue and I greeted Sue. By contrast, the subtype VJ**i is used to explicitly prohibit the above case, when one of the verbs is not transitive:
+-----Sp*i-----+ | +-VJlpi-+-VJrpi+--Os-+ | | | | | I.p fell.v-d and.j-v saw.w Sue.fThat is, one cannot say *I fell Sue; the verb to fall is not transtive (not to be confused with the verb to fell, as in to fell a tree).
See also the conjunction overview.Grammar Documentation Page.