*** Guide-to-Links ***

VJ connects verbs to the word "and" to create a conjoined modifier phrase.

       |  +--VJ-+--VJ--+
       |  |     |      |
      he ran and.j-v jumped
In the above example, the VJ links join the verbs "ran" and "jumped" to the central coordinator "and". The "and" acts as a head-word, connecting to the subject as if it were a verb itself: joining with the S link to the subject on the left.

There are many subtypes to the VJ link; these are summarized here, and reviewed in detail below.

First position
Second position
Controls agreemend with subject
Third position
Controls whether the conjunction can take an object.

The subtypes VJl, VJr, standing for "left" and "right", are used to maintain sequential ordering, which is important for comma-separated lists of verbs; thus, for example:

       |    +VJls+      +--VJlsi-+--VJrsi--+
       |    |    |      |        |         |
      he ran.v-d , jumped.v-d and.j-v scored.v-d 
The subtype VJn is used for neither ... nor ... constructions:
       |     +---Dn---+-VJn*i-+--VJr*i-+       |     +--Dmc-+
       |     |        |       |        |       |     |      |
      we neither.j ate.v-d nor.j-v drank.v-d for.p three days.n 
The subtype VJb is used for not only ... but also ... constructions. It is very similar in function to the VJn described above, in that it enforces a very similar structure. It differs only in coordinating a different set of words:
       |  +IDBM+--Db-+-VJb*i-+       +---E---+
       |  |    |     |       |       |       |
      we not only ate.v-d but.j-b also.e drank.v-d 
Notice that when infinitives are used, then the XJ link is used instead. This is probably a design flaw, and the approach taken for XJ links should be harmonized with that for VJb and VJn.

The subtype VJd is used to conjoin ditransitive objects (where the verb takes for a direct and indirect object):

              +------Osn------+      +------Osn------+
       +-Sp*i-+--Os--+   +-Ds-+      +---Os--+   +-Ds+
       |      |      |   |    |      |       |   |   |
      I.p gave.v-d Bob.m a doll.n and.j-o Mary.b a gun.n 
There are many "complex" transitive verbs that can be conjoined in a fashion similar to the above: transitive verbs that take particles, transitive verbs that can connect to phrases headed by to ... or that .... While the VJd subtype handles the most common case, that of ditransitive verbs, the more complex cases are not handled, or are not consistently handled in link-grammar. See also the discussion of this phenomenon in the page introducing conjunctions in link-grammar.

The subtype VJ*s is used to enforce singular subjects:

       |    +-VJlsi-+--VJrsi--+
       |    |       |         |
      he ran.v-d and.j-v jumped.v-d 
The subtype VJ*p is used to enforce plural subjects:
        |     +-VJlpi-+--VJrpi--+
        |     |       |         |
      they ran.v-d and.j-v jumped.v-d 
The subtype VJ*g is used to conjoin gerunds:
       +-Ss-+        +---VJlg---+---VJrg--+
       |    |        |          |         |
      he was.v-d running.v and.v-fill jumping.v 
The subtype VJ*h is used to conjoin past participles:
       +-Ss-+      +-VJlh-+--VJrht--+
       |    |      |      |         |
      he had.v-d run.v and.j-v jumped.v-d 

The VJ**i and VJ**t subtypes control whether a conjunction can take an object. The conjunction should take an object if both verbs are transitive; for example, I saw and greeted Sue, which should group together the verbs: I (saw and greeted) Sue, with the and acting as the head work, connnecting to the subject, and to the object:

       |     +-VJlpt-+--VJrpt--+        |
       |     |       |         |        |
      I.p saw.v-d and.j-v greeted.v-d Sue.f 
The above may be interpreted as two sentences: I saw Sue and I greeted Sue. By contrast, the subtype VJ**i is used to explicitly prohibit the above case, when one of the verbs is not transitive:
       |      +-VJlpi-+-VJrpi+--Os-+
       |      |       |      |     |
      I.p fell.v-d and.j-v saw.w Sue.f 
That is, one cannot say *I fell Sue; the verb to fall is not transtive (not to be confused with the verb to fell, as in to fell a tree).

See also the conjunction overview.

Grammar Documentation Page.